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Coarelli, F., & Strong, D. (1970). Greek and Roman Jewellery (68 Plates in Full Colour) (1st ed.). Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited.

Croom, A. (2002). Roman Clothing and Fashion (1st ed.). Amberley Publishing.

D’Ambrosio, A. (2001). Women and beauty in Pompeii. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. 

Elder, P. T. (2015). Delphi Complete Works of Pliny the Elder (Illustrated) (Delphi Ancient Classics Book 53) (1st ed.). Delphi Classics.

Higgins, R. (1961). Greek and Roman jewellery (Methuen’s handbooks of archaeology). London: Methuen. 

Higgins, R., & British Museum. Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. (1965). Jewellery from classical lands. London: Trustees of the British Museum. 

Johns, C. (1995). Sex Or Symbol? Erotic Images of Greece and Rome (3rd ed.). British Museum Press.

Knight, R. P., & Wright, T. (2006). Sexual symbolism: A history of phallic worship. Dover Publications.

Marshall, F. H. (1911). Catalogue of the jewellery, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman, in the departments of antiquities. British Museum. London: Printed by order of the Trustees.

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Ogden, J. (1982). Jewellery of the ancient world. New York: Rizzoli. 

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Bedini, A., Ehrman, S., Cesaro, S. N., Pasini, M., Rapinesi, I. A., & Sali, D. (2012). The Vallerano Diamond from Ancient Rome:L A Scientific Study. Gems & Gemology48(1), 39–41.

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Paolilli, A. (2008). Development and Crisis in Ancient Rome: The Role of Mediterranean Trade. Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, 33(4 (126)), 274-288. Retrieved February 11, 2020, from 

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Fayum Mummy Portraits

Pompeii Frescos


The British Museum (

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (

Wikipedia Commons

These are some of the sources that I’ve referenced or consulted all or parts of. I don’t necessarily agree with everything, however, I have found them useful and/or insightful. These are only some of the resources out there. Please derive and revise your conclusions with as much evidence as possible. Science!